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Review Questions for the Trinitarianism/ the Trinity Final Exam
1.) List twelve passages where Trinitarianism is assaulted by the modern critical Greek text, and provide brief justification for the Textus Receptus in these passages. Provide a more lengthy defense of the text that speaks of the three heavenly witnesses in the writings of John.
2.) State what the identifying particularities of the Persons in the ontological Trinity are, and prove these from Scripture. Give significant exegetical evidence.
3.) Explain carefully the Oneness Pentecostal view of God. What does this cult mean when it speaks of the “Father,” and what when it speaks of the “Son,” and when it speaks of the “Holy Spirit”? What is the Oneness Pentecostal doctrine of salvation?
4.) What do Arians mean, and what do Oneness Pentecostals mean, when they speak of the “Son of God” in relation to His preincarnate existence?
5.) Prove the preexistence of the Son, contra modalism, from the Old Testament.
6.) Prove the eternality of the Son from the New Testament, contra both modalism and Unitarianism.
7.) What false doctrines should you specifically attack, and what should you make sure a Oneness Pentecostal understands you believe, when witnessing to him?
8.) Explain the concept of the “burden of proof” as it relates to proof-texts.
9.) Prove the Personal distinction between the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ with at least five categories of evidence. What is the central argument Oneness Pentecostals employ to attempt to evade this distinction? Why does their attempt fail? Also, provide at least four categories of evidence that distinguish between the Lord Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit.
10.) Refute Sabellianism and Arianism from John 1—deal with attempts by these heresies to get out of the teaching of the passage.
11.) Refute modalism and Arianism from John’s Gospel, using texts not employed elsewhere in this assignment. Be detailed.
12.) Refute modalism and Unitarianism from Colossians, Philippians, and Hebrews. Deal with their objections to your proof-texts. Be detailed.
13.) Refute both the Arian and the modalist view of the Son from the book of Hebrews.
14.) Prove the Personal distinctions among the Trinitarian Persons with at least five lines of evidence from portions of the canon not mentioned in the three immediately preceding questions.
15.) State and refute both the modalist and Arian view of John 10:30.
16.) State and refute the modalist view of 2 Corinthians 3:17.
17.) State and refute the modalist argument that since the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit have the same functions, they are the same Person. Why is this argument invalid for modalism, but of value for Trinitarianism against Arianism?
18.) A Oneness Pentecostal asks you, “Do you think when people get to heaven they will see one throne, with one God seated on the throne, or three thrones, with three gods seated on them? We believe the former, while the Trinity teaches the latter.” Refute this argument.
19.) State and refute in detail the modalist argument from Isaiah 9:6.
20.) Explain and refute the Oneness Pentecostal view of Acts 2:38.
21.) Prove the Personality and Deity of God the Father. Why is the Father called “God” more often than the other two Trinitarian Persons?
22.) Who is the Angel of the LORD? Prove it from Scripture, using at least five passages. What relevance does the Angel of the LORD have for the OT testimony to the Trinity?
23.) What does the word “angel” fundamentally mean in the Old and New Testaments? How is this relevant for the identity of the Angel of the LORD?
24.) Which Person or Persons of the Godhead appeared in bodily form in the Old Testament? Prove this fact from Scripture, and explain why it was peculiarly appropriate for this Person (or these Persons) to appear.
25.) Provide five arguments from the Old Testament for the Deity of Christ, in addition to whatever arguments were discussed in the immediately preceding questions.
26.) Discuss, and provide evidence for, the Deity of Christ from the book of Isaiah, from the Psalter, and from the rest of the Old Testament.
27.) Exposit the New Testament passages (other than the texts corrupted by the Greek critical text) where Jesus Christ is called “God.” Explain and refute Arian attempts to escape the significance of these passages. Give significant detail on each of these passages.
28.) Refute both Arianism and modalism and prove Trinitarianism from Matthew 28:18-20.
29.) Explain the pervasive character of the NT witness to the Deity of Christ. Give examples.
30.) Give at least five examples of texts that deal with Christ’s attributes, that deal with Christ’s works, and that deal with descriptions of Christ, that prove His Deity.
31.) State the major Arian categories of argument against the Deity of Christ, and refute their arguments.
32.) Explain in detail why each of the key Arian proof-texts against the Deity of Christ fail to establish Arianism.
33.) Prove, with at least seven lines of evidence, the Personality of the Holy Spirit, against Unitarianism. Then prove, with multiple lines of evidence, His Deity. Refute Arian objections and attempts to escape the validity of these conclusions. Include texts that deal with His attributes, texts that deal with His works, and texts that deal with descriptions of Him. Passages that prove both His Personality and Deity can be employed in relation to the proof of both truths. Do not use texts employed in other related questions of similar character.
34.) “Since the Holy Spirit can be ‘poured out,’ the Spirit is not a Person.” Refute this argument with at least one specific counter-example.
35.) How do modern Arians argue against the Personality and Deity of the Spirit? Why are their arguments invalid? Give and refute specific examples of anti-Trinitarian argumentation. Do not include the immediately preceding argument as an example for this question.
36.) Reproduce Owen’s definition of communion with God.
37.) Is prayer addressed directly to the Person of the Holy Spirit the model for prayer in Scripture? Is it lawful? In answering this question, explain Owen’s position and argument.
38.) What is Luke 11:13 talking about in relation to the believer’s fellowship with the Holy Spirit? How is this passage misused—including by Owen?
39.) Explain why a non-Trinitarian piety is sub-Christian. How close should the Trinity be to the center of a believer’s devotional life? How does a Trinitarian piety protect the believer from dry rationalism and fanatical or pantheistic mysticism?
40.) Explain the connection between the revelation of Trinitarian ontology in Scripture and the revelation of Trinitarian economy in Scripture for Christian piety.
41.) Prove from Scripture that the believer has distinct communion with all three Persons of the Trinity.
42.) What is the classical doctrine of Appropriations? How do the distinct roles of the Persons in the economic Trinity relate to distinct communion?
43.) What is the difference between affirming that the believer has distinct communion with the Trinitarian Persons and affirming that the believer has exclusive communion with any one of the Three? Which position is true, and why?
44.) How does the believer hold distinct communion with the Father? Explain both the distinct ways in which the Father reveals Himself to the believer and the believer’s distinct return to Him. Prove your position from Scripture.
45.) What are four distinguishing qualities in the attribute wherein Owen affirms the believer has distinct communion with the Father? What are the specific ways in which Owen breaks down the believer’s return to the Father of what the Father holds out to him?
46.) How does the believer hold distinct communion with the Son? Explain both the distinct ways in which the Son reveals Himself to the believer and the believer’s distinct return to Him. Prove your position from Scripture.
47.) What are the two main divisions into which Owen divides the way the believer holds distinct communion with the Son? What two things in Christ are focused upon in these two main divisions? Break down, within these two main divisions, what the Son distinctly holds out to the believer and what the believer returns to the Son.
48.) What type of unity is unveiled, according to Owen, in John 17:20-23? What significance does this have for Christian living?
49.) How does the believer hold distinct communion with the Holy Ghost? Explain both the distinct ways in which the Holy Spirit reveals Himself to the believer and the believer’s distinct return to Him. Prove your position from Scripture.
50.) Have you completed all the assigned reading for the course, both in the textbooks and in the course handouts?